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Introduction. The article presents the parameters and aspects of the formation of theoretical knowledge among students about the most complex unit of syntax and the main communicative unit - the text, as well as the ability to analyze text categories in connection with the need to teach younger students to work with the unit. Naturally, the future teacher should have a more extensive scientific picture on the theory of text, compared with the idea of it, which is given in textbooks on the Russian language for elementary school, quite fragmented and simplified. The modern school requires the teacher to master a wide range of competencies, since the state sets before it the tasks of forming a person who knows how to navigate social life, independently acquire knowledge, determine the development vectors of society, and communicate in different situations with different goals. In such conditions, building a text, increasing its information content, and impact effectiveness are the most important skills that future teachers should possess and form them among students.
Methods and materials. The main research methods were the analysis of scientific literature, as well as descriptive, distributive, linguocultural. The material for analysis was programs and textbooks on the Russian language and literary reading for elementary schools, normative documents of the Federal State Educational Standard, curricula for the training of specialists in the field of primary education.
Results. A prospective teacher should have sufficient knowledge of linguistic terminology, scientific concepts for text research, be able to analyze both prose and poetic works and their episodes, be able to organize work on the text in Russian language lessons and literary reading, and be proficient in presenting text categories to younger students, to contribute to the formation of communicative competence among students in the process of analyzing texts of different styles and genres. The teacher must know the level of development of his students in order to rely on the knowledge and skills that they already have in the process of mastering and systematizing new information.
The content of linguistic and cultural competence of the student enrolled in the profile of primary education, involves taking into account the multi-aspect of the studied linguistic and speech phenomenon, which makes it possible to increase the level of informativeness of classes and extracurricular work and a variety of forms of control. For example, you can offer students a text with outdated, dialect words and give a task to search for these lexical units, followed by work on the appropriate dictionaries. Naturally, before carrying out such work, the teacher, first of all, should be prepared: to repeat the concepts, to determine the forms of explanation of the properties of these lexical units available to younger students, to determine reference materials with which children will be effectively engaged, to find illustrative material.
Linguistic and cultural competence implies the formation of background knowledge about the language, about the work, about the history of any genre of one of the functional styles, about the author of artistic, popular science and publicistic texts. Texts for the third and fourth classes may contain superlative units – phraseological units and Proverbs. They are the "cultural" segments of the language, the internal form of which must first be familiar to the teacher, to determine the area of such units and ways to explain their meanings and history.
Therefore, the future teacher should possess background knowledge, pedagogical communication and actions on accumulation of specialized subject and cultural knowledge.
The study of the text is based on knowledge of basic linguistic concepts — sentence, intonation, characteristics of sentences on the purpose of expression and structure, expressive means of language and speech.
Discussion. A future teacher should have a certain set of research tools, about the work with which he should give a concept to his students. The most significant and common are the following methods and techniques: 1) a descriptive method in which the analyzed phenomenon is singled out and considered as part of the language system; 2) a comparative method in which the analyzed phenomenon is compared with other phenomena or its realizations, depending on the tasks of the text; 3) the method of a linguistic experiment, implemented in the methods of transformation of the text, in the replacement of its components and the rearrangement of microparticles and episodes.
Students should know the content and scope of such concepts as cohesion, continuum, emotive text space, modality, personality, intertext. Naturally, they are not included in the program of the comprehensive school and should not be included because of their complexity, but the teacher must know about them in order to correctly formulate tasks related to the analysis of texts in Russian language lessons and literary reading.
One of the mandatory rules for a young teacher should be the correct use of terms in the lesson, which helps students learn the exact boundaries of the content of concepts, the compatibility of terms and the relevance of their use.
Conclusion. The specifics of students mastering text categories is due to their belonging to the communicative level of the language, mastery of which is one of the main goals of the educational process. A necessary stage of this mastery is the achievement of theoretical competence, that is, the basic concepts associated with the study of the text, the diverse aspects of its study in domestic and foreign philology. The teacher should have a theoretical outlook and at the same time be able to adapt it to the needs of primary philological education. Of course, a student going to practice or work should have a certain baggage of well-readness, including not only "children's" works for elementary school, certain authors, but also their works for adults, as this allows you to create a holistic concept about the work of a writer or understanding of the literary process of a particular era. The student must possess the nuances of the analysis of various genres of fiction, be able to conduct various types of educational conversations, develop samples of philological and linguistic analysis of the text.
primary education, language education, text, text categories, communicative competence, linguocultural competence, episode, philological or linguistic literary analysis of the text
The student must have theoretical competence, i.e. a complex of theoretical knowledge that meets the modern level of a particular science, in this case, the theory of text;
The area of professional competence of a student implies knowledge of the content of curricula and textbooks in Russian for elementary school, the ability to use materials for additional education and self-education, knowledge of the algorithm for organizing lesson and extracurricular activities with primary school children to master text categories and text production skills;
The text is a product of culture, reflects the relationship between texts of different genres and directions, therefore, the future teacher should have a sufficiently high level of reading and the ability to determine the meaningful, historical and aesthetic connections between works;
Mastering the properties of the text provides the opportunity to implement the interactive principle of learning both in the classroom and in extracurricular activities;
The text has educational potential and serves as an incentive for reflection and self-education;
The text is a carrier of cultural information, expands the background knowledge of the student, carries out intersubject communications.
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